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English Grammar >>> Present Perfect Tense






 Structure Examples We use the Present Perfect Tense:
 To form the Present Perfect Tense we use has or have with the past participle form of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed (worked, studied, etc.). Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized. (went, spoken, seen, etc.)

 Affirmative form

I
you               have worked
we     
they

he/she/it    has worked /-s/


watch - watched /-ed/
play - played /-ed/
study - studied /-ed/

! Remember:

to be - been
to do - did
to have - had

 Negative form

I
you      HAVE NOT /haven't/
we           WORKED
they

he/she/it    HAS NOT
              /hasn't / WORKED

1. They haven't been to New York yet.
2. She hasn't seen him so far.

 Interrogative form

                 I
HAVE       you       WORKED?
                 we
                 they

HAS   he/she/it    WORKED?

1. Have you ever worked from home?
2. Has he ever been to Italy?

1. My sister-in-law has been a teacher since 2000.
2. David has worked in Spain since 1996.
3. He hasn't smoked for three years.
4. We have lived here for fifteen years.
to express an action that began in the past and continues in the present (often with since and for).
1. They have never been abroad.
2. Jane has already recieved her birthday presents.
3. The child has never asked me such questions before.
4. She has never expected such a change for the worse.
5. My coleague has been very busy recently.
with adverbs such as ever, already, never, recently, lately, yet, always, etc.
1. They have watched this film.
2. She has lost her keys.
3. The children have washed the dishes.
4. I have read this book.
5. We have moved into a new house.
6. Diana has changed her job.
to express an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past (the exact time when it happened is not important)
1. I have written many letters since I moved to Canada.
2. We have had five tests so far this semester.
3. He has been in New York many times.
4. I have played tennis every sunday morning for the last two years.
to talk about a repeated action in the past with unspecified time of completion (with so far, many times, since, for the last year, for hours, for a week, several times, etc.)
1. Emma has just washed her hair.
2. We have just finished our lunch.
to talk about a very recently completed action
1. This is one of the most beautiful country she has ever visited.
2. This is the most delicious food I have ever eaten.
we often use Present Perfect after a superlatives
1. This is the first time I've ever visited your website and I think it is awesome.
2. It's the first time I've ever eaten Chinese food.
we also use Present Perfect with the expressions "This is the first time...", "It's the first time...", etc.
1. You can go out as soon as you have finished your homework.
2. I will go to bed after I have written my report.
sometimes Present Perfect is used to emphasise on the completion of the act in the time clause (with time words such as when, until, after, before, as soon as)










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