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  Past Participle

Grammar  >>>  Past Participle

  1. Participles are formed from verbs. There are three types of Participles in English language: the Present Participle, the Past Participle and the Perfect Participle.

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Present Participle
being written
Past Participle
Perfect Participle
having written
having been written

  2. Spelling rules for the formation of the Past Participle.

 The general rule is: base form of the verb + '-ed':
work - worked                   add - added
wash - washed                    allow - allowed
watch - watched                 consider - considered
paint - painted                     finish - finished
enjoy - enjoyed                   play - played

  Note that there are a few exceptions:

  • when the verb ends in a consonant + '-y' it changes to -i before '-ed':
  • study - studied                   hurry - hurried
    apply - applied                  worry - worried
    try - tried                           marry - married
    cry - cried                          tidy - tidied
    busy - busied                     carry - carried
  • when the verb ends in a vowel '-e' we add '-d' after it:
  • live - lived                           dance - danced
    hope - hoped                      love - loved
    chase - chased                    smoke - smoked
    improve - improved            confuse - confused
    move - moved                     phone - phoned
    care - cared                        shave - shaved
  • when a one syllable verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant we double the final consonant before '-ed':
  • stop - stopped                   plan - planned
    drop - dropped                 ban - banned
    rob - robbed                     crop - cropped
    step - stepped                   split - splitted
  • when the verb has more than one syllable, we double the final consonant before '-ed' only if the final syllable is stressed:
  • permit - permitted              admit - admitted
    prefer - preferred               regret - regretted
  • when the final syllable of the verb is not stressed, we do not double the final consonant before '-ed':
  • descover - descovered              remember - remembered
    visit - visited                              recover - recovered
    listen - listened                          develop - developed
  • In British English the verbs that end in -l double the final consonant before '-ed' (whether the final syllable is stressed or not):

  • travel - travelled                     cancel - cancelled
  • when the verb ends in two consonants (-st-, -rt-, -ck-, -sk-, -rn-, -lk-) we do not double the final consonant before '-ed':

  • post - posted                     trust - trusted
    start - started                     port - ported
    kick - kicked                     knock - knocked
    ask - asked                        mask - masked
    warn - warned                   turn - turned
    walk - walked                    talk - talked
  • when the verb ends in two vowel letters before the final consonant we do not double it:

  • boil - boiled                       exploit - exploited
    need - needed                   explain - explained
    shout - shouted                  found - founded
    want - wanted                   cook - cooked
 3. The Past Participal can be also used as an ajective in front of a noun: a broken window, a handwritten letter, the stolen money, etc.

 List of Irregular Verbs

 Using Participles

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